contour strip mining coal mining

Coal Contour Surface "Strip" Mining

The Contour or Bench method of surface or strip mining is usually associated with coal, where a seam or multiple seams are located at a certain elevation or elevations through a mountain or hill. Contour mining allows for the extraction of coal from mountainous areas, where it is not feasible to extract the entire seam, using mountain top ...

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Strip Mining | Encyclopedia

 · Hillside mining such as this is called "contour mining," in contrast to "area mining" on relatively flat terrain. In the latter, the number of rows are limited mostly by contractual arrangements. Consequently, the main difference between area and contour strip mining are the number of rows and the steepness of the terrain.

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contour strip mining environmental impact

Coal mining and excavation sites also contribute to air pollution. Parallel lines represent the drive cut into the mountain (up to 1,200 feet (366 m) deep - 2015 records), without heading or corrective steering actuation on a navigation Azimuth during mining results in missing a portion of the coal seam and is a potential danger of cutting in pillars from previous mined drives due to ...

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Commonly used mining techniques to extract coal | IEA ...

 · Contour strip mining and area strip mining are the two forms of strip mining, which is often used to extract coal and lignite. In contour strip mining, bulldozers or power shovels are deployed to take away huge amounts of ground material in terraced strips for extracting coal from a seam on a hill.

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Chapter 2: The Environmental Effects of Strip Mining

This section describes the five main types of surface coal mining techniques: area mining, open pit mining, contour mining, auger mining, and mountaintop removal. Underground mining is also considered in this section. Terrain, economics, and custom generally dictate which technique an operator chooses.. All surface or strip mining first removes the overlying vegetation, soil and underground ...

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Strip Mining for Coal

Almost 20 years since the strip mine began and it is still going strong here in Stellarton, Nova Scotia. In another five or six years time the mining should ...

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Strip Mining

Strip mining is a type of surface mining where the overlying vegetation, rock, and soil (overburden) is removed in order to reach the underlying coal seam, which usually lies a few feet beneath the surface. Explosives are used to fracture any overlying rock, and then heavy machinery is used to remove the overburden and dump it into a nearby area.

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Contour strip mining is used mostly to mine coal on hilly ...

–Contour strip mining is used mostly to mine coal on hilly or mountainous terrain. • Mountaintop removal uses explosives, large power shovels, and huge machines called draglines to remove the top of a mountain and expose seams of coal. • Subsurface mining removes minerals from underground through tunnels and shafts. - Mining …

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Coal Controversy In Appalachia

Surface mining at these scales is more economical for coal companies, safer for miners, and, coal operators say, essential for mining the thin seams of lower-sulfur coal more valuable in today''s market. With dynamite and immense machines, surface mines can produce more than two to three times as much coal per miner as underground mines can.

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What Is The Environmental Impact Of The Coal Industry ...

 · Coal mining, the process of extracting coal from the ground, is a common economic activity around the world. Coal is removed in a number of ways including: contour mining, strip mining, and mountaintop removal. After undergoing a cleansing process, coal is typically burned in order to produce electricity.

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Types of Surface Mining | American Mine Services

Contour mining is a version of strip mining that follows the contours of outcrops and hilly terrains. Usually, the mineral seam follows the contour of the outcrop, and the overburden is removed carefully along the seam in much smaller and custom shaped excavations rather than long strips.

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Contour Haulback mining

Jan 19, 2020 - Fung, R. (1981). Surface coal mining technology: engineering and environmental aspects. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corp.

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Contour Highwall Mining

Contour Highwall Mining looks for new opportunities to help coal mining operations worldwide. By Chris Petersen. The energy market in the United States has been in a state of flux for the last few years as the federal government has attempted to focus on alternatives to traditional fuels like coal.

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Contour Strip Contour strip mining is a method of ...

Module 6 Lesson 3 Practice Activity One Mining Worksheet surface mining or in which bulldozers, power shovels, or stripping wheels are used to remove large chunks of earth in terraced strips in order to extract coal from a seam or series of seams on a hill or mountain. reach thin coal seams within, leaving permanent scars on the landscape. In this way, strip mining destroys landscapes, forests ...

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Contour Mining Flashcards | Quizlet

Contour Strip Mining. -used in areas where a coal seam outcrops on the side of a hill, but the economics do not permit the complete removal of the overburden. -Mining proceeds along the outcrop in a strip or series of strips until the economic limit of stripping is reached. Phases of Contour Mining. • Removal of top soil.

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STRIP MINING

Strip mining is accomplished by two techniques; area stripping and contour stripping. Where coal seams are relatively flat and near the surface. In area strip mining, the overlying material is removed from the seams of coal. Area strip mining is removed in long narrow bands, or strips, followed by removal of the exposed coal.

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Strip Mining: Methods of Control by the Three Levels of ...

Strip mining is the process of removing the topsoil, rock and other material (overburden) covering a mineral deposit in order to ex-tract the minerals.1 Strip mining is of two types: contour stripping and area stripping. The method used depends upon the topography of the land.

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What is contour strip mining?

Strip mining, removal of soil and rock (overburden) above a layer or seam (particularly coal), followed by the removal of the exposed mineral. The common strip-mining techniques are classified as area mining or contour mining on the basis of the deposit geometry and type.

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The Violent Remaking of Appalachia

 · Today, contour mining seems almost artisanal. Since the 1990s, half the region''s coal has come from "mountaintop removal," a slightly too-clinical term for demolishing and redistributing ...

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While differentiating between Area strip mining and ...

 · Area Strip mining and Contour mining are two types of surface coal mining techniques. Area strip mining is a type of mining used on a flat terrain. In this, an earthmover strips away the overburden, and a power shovel digs a cut to remove the mineral deposit. The trench is then filed with overburden and a new cut is made parallel to the ...

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Chapter 2: The Environmental Effects of Strip Mining THE ...

The Mechanics of Strip Mining This section describes the five main types of surface coal mining techniques: area mining, open pit mining, contour mining, auger mining, and mountaintop removal. Underground mining is also considered in this section. Terrain, economics, and custom generally dictate which technique an operator chooses.

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Strip Mining

Andrew P. Schissler, in Encyclopedia of Energy, 2004 2.3 Strip Mining. Strip mining is employed in coal reserves where the overburden is removed in rectangular blocks in plan view called pits or strips. The pits are parallel and adjacent to each other. Strip mining is fundamentally different from contour or area mining on how the overburden is displaced, called spoil handling.

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Open-pit Mining, Opencast Mining, Open-cut Mining, Strip ...

But after World War II surface coal mining was enveloped by auger mining, which is a normal part of contour operations. Surface mining was referred to as strip mining or stripping or sometimes as surface mining itself. They often failed to differentiate these different methods of mining. Sometimes it was also called contour mining as it was the ...

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Coal Countur Surface Strip Mining

Mine Tailings Disposal Methods. Jun 16 2017 surface mining is conducted by two basic methods contour strip mining and area mining contour strip mines are used in hilly or rolling country such as occurs in the appalachian coal mining region overburden excavations follow the contour of the coal outcrop along the hillside resulting in long sinuous bands of stripmined land surrounding

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Mining | Coal Mines

Surface techniques can be broadly classified into (1) contour strip mining, (2) area strip mining, (3) open-pit mining, and (4) auger mining. Contour strip mining. Contour mining is commonly practiced where a coal seam outcrops in rolling or hilly terrain.

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Plundering Appalachia

Mountaintop removal is strip-mining on steroids. Massive dump trucks, huge bulldozers, and ten-story-high draglines can undo in months what geological processes took millions of years to build. Typically, multiple coal seams are exposed as a mountaintop-removal operation dismantles the …

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Coal production using mountaintop removal mining decreases ...

 · Types of surface mining techniques include contour strip, area, open pit, and mountaintop removal. In mountaintop removal, entire coal seams running through the upper portion of a mountain are mined by removing all of the overburden (rock or soil overlying a mineral deposit), creating a level plateau or gently rolling contour.

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Contour strip mining | coal mining | Britannica

Other articles where Contour strip mining is discussed: auger mining: Augering is usually associated with contour strip-mining, recovering coal for a limited depth beyond the point where stripping becomes uneconomical because the seam of coal lies so far beneath the surface.

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Basic Information about Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia ...

Surface coal mining in the steep terrain of the central Appalachian coalfields includes: mountaintop removal, contour, area, highwall, and; auger mining. Operations are concentrated in: eastern Kentucky, southern West ia, western ia, eastern Ohio, and; scattered areas of eastern Tennessee. Surface coal mining involves:

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What is Strip Mining? Methods and Impact | Environment Buddy

 · Contour Mining. The contour method is used practically solely in the Appala­chian region of North America, where coal seams protrude from the sides of hills or mountains. Contour mining entails making cuts on the slant/angle where the coal seam is traced, to take away the overburden first and then the coal itself.

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Coal Surface Mining

 · Auger Mining(Courtesy: Auger Mining ~ Auger Tool Image) In this mining method used in conjunction with the above methods primarily contour strip mining. In this method, auger holes are drilled to extract the coal seam from the last contour cut. To put it in prospective it is similar to the shavings of a carpenter''s bit.

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Contour Strip Mining by Carissa Goddeau

 · Contour Strip Mining Carissa Goddeau & Avery DeBoer It is hazardous to human health Linked to birth defects, heart disease, and cancer in communities that are affected by fallouts Fallout contain millions of pounds of mining explosives, silica dust, and pulverized heavy metals It

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More than half of the U.S. coal mines operating in 2008 ...

 · Surface mining techniques are categorized as either strip, open pit, or mountaintop removal. Strip mining is a method used on flat terrain and involves removing soil or rock above a layer of coal, exposing the coal seam for mining. One type of strip mining is contour mining, where extraction activities occur on a hillside.

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Kentucky strip mining | The Pop History Dig

 · Strip Mining. Strip mining in Kentucky and elsewhere had gone on for decades before Harry Caudill arrived on the scene, but after World War II the technology had moved well beyond the "pick-and-shovel" stage. In eastern Kentucky especially, the practice of "shoot and shove" contour strip mining was notorious. Miners gouged into hillsides with mechanized shovels and dozers, establishing ...

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A DEMONSTRATION OF ERTS-I ANALOG AND DIGITAL …

The largest contour strip mining operations in western Maryland and West ia are located within the Georges Creek and the Upper Potomac Basins. These two coal basins lie within the Georges Creek (Wellersburg) syncline. The disturbed strip mine areas were delineated with the surrounding geological and vegetation features using ERTS-1

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Coal Contour Surface "Strip" Mining

What Are the Pros and Cons of Strip Mining? (with pictures)

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